Stephen Battersby

The EU and France pledged to contribute with 50% of the cost, while the other six parties agreed to each contribute around 10 per cent. It is noteworthy, that ITER continues the design of smaller experimental reactors where physicists already managed to produce temperatures needed for fusion. Nuclear fuel remains inside a reactor with a ring, called a tokamak. Magnets that are combined to generate surround a field in spiral that maintains the plasma supercaliente in place. To achieve its magnetic cage, ITER will use an alloy of niobium superconductor cables, which are cooled with liquid helium.

Outside the magnetic cage, a vacuum isolates the confined plasma from the inner wall of the reactor. Stephen Battersby, question thereon, why not are overflowing our electricity networks with energy obtained by nuclear fusion? While the concept of fusion is simple, put it into practice is tremendously difficult. And this is because the atomic nuclei are elusive: each has positive electrical charge and repel among themselves. Only at temperatures incredibly high gain enough energy to overcome their mutual aversion and merged. That is exactly what happens in the Sun. There, the heat is generated by the fusion of hydrogen nuclei. But the fuel barely melts at 15 million degrees, the temperature prevailing in the core of the Sun.

Burns so slowly that last billions of years. In a fusion plant, the fuel has to burn on human time scales. The heavier isotopes deuterium and tritium are easier to burn than hydrogen, but even so to get the effect within the ITER will require 15 million degrees. And that presents a mountain of engineering problems, among which contain the plasma of electrons and atomic nuclei to one ten times greater than the Sun’s temperature is not minor. Even the most resistant materials cannot withstand temperatures of more than thousands of degrees, so the solution is to isolate a receptacle for the plasma’s magnetic fields.


The educational offer has been expanded in Mexico during the last ten years, allowing one increasing number of people continue and conclude their studies and, therefore, achieve more and better opportunities in the working world. An example of this is the high school or the high school open, to which both students attend who are in the age in which regularly curse this school level, such as adults who cannot attend so regular to regular classes by their occupations. Open high school is a flexible educational model that adapts easily to the needs of the students. Thanks to programs designed to provide knowledge through the support of an advisory, but above all through the own effort and dedication of the students, encourages independent education. Academic resources that are available to students is intended to make it more accessible to the task of acquiring knowledge that will be useful later, either in the world of work and in daily life in general, and not only information that is stored to be poured into a test and then forgotten. The main requirement for filing open prepa is having the desire and the interest of overcoming oneself, since the skills necessary to take forward the studies are acquired with practice, perseverance and the habit.

On the other hand, this system has teachers specialists and counselors who teach the technical students of study to take full advantage of the time devoted to each of the subjects. Many experts in the field of education at upper secondary level have been classified broadly open system of self-taught. While this definition does not entirely match the format in which they operate educational tasks, it is true that primary responsibility runs from the learner, since teachers above all act as advisors rather than as teachers themselves. This circumstance can be seen as very positive by a large number of little accustomed people to the a regular class restrictions. In the open system assists, are not taken do not have holdings or good behavior, but only the desire to acquire knowledge. Time you end the open prepa vary from campus to campus and even program to program. In the most traditional systems, the duration is three years, equal in the school, although in some institutions system is unable to get certificate in a year, using an only examination attesting the knowledge of the three levels of secondary education.

Marine Fuels

Distillate marine fuel consisting of lighter fractions obtained by distillation installations for oil refining, are characterized by low viscosity, v = 3 h-6 mm2 / s, so do not require heating before serving to engines or boilers. Heavy Marine Fuels are a mixture consisting of the residual products of petroleum and distillates. Depending on the balance of light and heavy components viscosity of heavy marine fuels, as well as their other indicators, varies considerably. In Russia, the quality of marine fuels are regulated by state standards and specifications. Abroad, the quality of marine fuels specifications determined supplier firms of British (BS 2869: 1967) and American (A5> TM-D975 and D396-67). Began in the 70s and more distributed process involving the production of ship fuel oil products recycling demanded revision existing standards and specifications, the expansion of the limit values of quality and attraction of additional indicators (such as the aluminum content, stability and compatibility of fuels, etc.). Distillate marine fuel Due to limited resources and high value distillates, diesel marine fuel – referring to the class of spirits, in the USSR, approximately 1.7 times the cost of heavy marine fuels.

Consumption of marine diesel fuel to Navy ships is only 6-12% of the total amount of fuel burned. Its mainly used to support medium-and high-speed diesel engines, that either by design or because of unsuitability of toplivopodgotovki (no heat) can not be translated into a more severe marine fuel. In the main engines of ships ship diesel fuel used exclusively during the maneuvers, and for flushing the fuel system before stopping. The domestic industry produces marine diesel fuel in accordance with GOST 305-82 by mixing fractions of direct distillation of sulfur crudes, hydrotreating and dewaxing the past, with a catalytic gas oil. The presence of a catalytic gas oil, reduces the operational properties of fuels, in particular increasing its propensity for deposition. Marine fuel produced four grades: A, 3, AP, A, which is on the sulfur content is divided into two subgroups: with S%, with S == 0,21 – 0,5%.

The content of mercaptan sulfur in the sulfur of both subgroups is limited to 0.01%. As replacement marine diesel fuel in ships of sea and river vessels are widely used gas turbine fuel (GOST 10433-75). Fuel is obtained as a byproduct in the process of delayed coking unit in the development of petroleum coke, metallurgical industry required. Gas turbine fuel and TG TGVK have a higher density and viscosity, but not so high that they had to warm up before use. For these fuels have a higher sulfur content (1 and 2.5% respectively), and what should be paid attention to particular, they contain up to 25% tar. This leads to their low stability, manifests itself when heated and mixed with other fuels. Since 1988, the oil industry began to supply the navy ship's low-viscosity oil designed to replace diesel and gas turbine fuels. It produce fuel by mixing the distillate of secondary processes (coking, thermal and catalytic cracking) of diesel fractions with a high end boiling point, taken from the atmospheric and vacuum columns. On Compared with the ship's diesel fuel to it less stringent requirements (may be twice as high viscosity, 11 mm2 / s, the sulfur content to 1.5%, lower TSCH – not less than 40).


The gain this reported to the country allowed the expansion of other industries and the growth of cities. At this time begins the managerial leadership in our country. Scope: As advanced industrialization, which England was the greatest exponent until the second world war, industrialised countries jurisdiction to improve their techniques of production and for that industry needed to improve the preparation of managers. This resulted in the beginning of the formal study of careers related to trade (managers, accountants, economists, industrial relations). The University of Carabobo, whose reopening was decreed by the junta which replaced the dictatorship of Perez Jimenez 21 – 03 1958, open the Faculty of Economics and social sciences. Being Valencia an industrial city needed to prepare excellent professionals in the commercial area. The Manager must be a leader.

There are different styles of leadership. According to the mentioned by Paez C. Levicki treatise there are seven groups, namely: charismatic, autocratic, top intelligence, Shepherd, army general, leader of royalty and natural. The author considers that the natural leader is the most effective because one of his great abilities is the motivation that transmits to his closest followers that work with pleasure and maintain happy shareholders. Impact: Globalization which has among its characteristic aspects the expansion of trade, the formation of economic blocs, the adoption of market policies and the strengthening of the democratic system of Government has underscored the need for debate about the role they should play the leaders in the Organization of the 21st century. The culture of quality is essential to be competitive in a globalized world, we must increase the production but preserving the optimum quality of the product. In the globalized world, the manager plays a fundamental role, they will have to learn how to create an environment that adopt the change not as a threat but as an opportunity. The leader must be the engine of the process of change.