In a ticket of its book, express Michelet all its indignation concerning colon crucial that they bind to the humanity the war and the church, ' ' war, sanctity, two words contradictory; it seems that the sanctity is the accurate opposite of the war, that it is before the love and the peace ' ' (Michelet, p.69-1995). ' ' thus with abandoning for the church, it if delivered with all the confidence the God ' ' (Michelet, P. 123-1995). In its mentions ' ' poor person donzela' ' He in such a way stopped it to Michelet with ardor as if he was seeing all the suffering that it passed to reach its objective that was to free ' ' amada' ' France. It is through these personages who history if presents to each century, at each moment appears somebody that goes to receive the merit for having collaborated with some marcante fact. For history in it exists barriers, therefore we can bring something last it and to contextualizar it with the moment where we live. Being thus this analysis, it shows as these rescues had collaborated to elucidate the workmanships of the cited authors, and also in the form as they had been used had a value of cultural memory transcendente of the antiquity until medievo, being that these rescues had not lost its direction, but they had gained others of 20 Ed. So Paulo: Imaginary Ed.: You polish, 1995.>.
The processes of erudite history were definitively firmed, enunciating, the rules that the Positivismo would impose in century XIX. Page: 32-35. GIOVANNI BATTISTA VICO Giovanni Battista Vico was a species of precursor of the development of history in the periods that if had followed. According to it, History can be object of human knowledge, being process for which the human beings elaborate language systems, customs, laws, governments etc., History is, for Vico, the history of gnese and the development of the societies human beings and its institutions. Defending the cyclical character of the societies human beings, Vico it established that to a heroic period a classic period is followed. To this last one, a barbarous period is followed.
To know a society, this author considered the study of the language, the use of mythology, the use of the tradition and one better understanding of the human groups. Page: 35-37. The CENTURY OF the LIGHTS AND HISTORY century XVIII is marked by the movement that was known as Iluminismo and, that it considered, that the men of that time if they very became optimistical how much the power of the reason to know and to reorganize the world. Its basic claim was freedom. She was as if the humanity reached the majority, continuing to the movement that if she initiates in the Renaissance.
The involved philosophers with the new ideas had organized the publication of an immense workmanship, the Encyclopedia, whose verbetes is written by diverse authors, as, Voltaire, Diderot, among others. In the field politician, the right the holy ghost Dos Reis passed to be contested, formulating new teses on the origin of the power. In the economy, the intervention of the State passed contested Mr. and the liberal economists nailed the doctrine of laissez-passer, that is, the auto-regulation of the markets. ‘ ‘ The vision of history of century XVIII is less of a finished building, of well delimited contours, what of a force acting in all sentidos’ ‘ (Cassirer, 1997, P. 268-269). Page: 37-39. VOLTAIRE AND the MAGNIFYING OF the PERSPECTIVES OF Voltaire HISTORY were poet, philosopher and historian. Social politics was gone deep history and to create some historical workmanships. Voltaire understood that the object of history had to be the study of the reasons and the passions that guide the actions human beings. It valued the careful use of the documentation, intent the veracity of the descriptive facts, selecting events that considered excellent. It was worried about the clarity and concision of its texts and used the principles of the painting and the theater. For Voltaire history is not an invariant sort and the way of conceiving leagues the scientific movement in general to it. It nailed the necessity of a development of the science of the demography and economic history, but nor always it obtained to be faithful to the principles for he himself established. The critical scholar made possible security in the work with the documentation. The document notion also was extended. Freed of the religion, History consisted as science. Page: 39-41. Bibliographical references ALENCAR, Amlia Maria Garci’a. Reason At the time Modern Erudio. In. The History of History. Goinia-GO.: Ed.Universidade Catholic of Gois, 2005, pp.
Oldest it has the position of next to the espritos of ancestor and exerts the function of mediator between the livings creature and the deceased make responsible that it for the tasks of being able and for the maintenance of the order that espritos had created and want that if it keeps. In the African societies permeadas by a presence ‘ ‘ of ancestor who constitute in the addition of the livings creature, of that still for nascer’ ‘. (Lundin, 1992, p.44) Evangelizar meant ‘ ‘ civilizar’ ‘ in accordance with the occidental parameters, mean to educate to be one ‘ ‘ assimilado’ ‘. thus the Christianity obtained to impose itself taking off ‘ ‘ assimilado’ ‘ , ‘ ‘ convertido’ ‘ of its cultural world, religious and familiar. The population that lived in the villages and the tribes already did not have its heads and its lands. They had been to them new taxes ‘ ‘ heads governamentais’ ‘ , unknown and total pertaining to other ethnic groups.
It continued thus the sad forcible process of alteration of the traditions, of the social and psychological structures of the tribes and the people who had that to abandon its sacred land, its ancestor, its places and to occupy lands of others. With all this sociocultural change, the society was sick, entered in a total social clutter. The initiation rites that constituam for the young, these well definite and marcantes moments of its personality, as much in personal level as social and religious, had been disappearing without being substituted. The young of this generation had lost the contact with its parents, oldest of its village, many young and many children if they find total desenraizados now of its people, its village and its culture, without no ideal for which to fight. Everything this gave place to the phenomena of the marginality, prostitution, the drug, of the corruption, folloied for the great depreciation of the human being.
We cannot also forget the increasing phenomenon urbanization, each more chaotic time and that it takes ace peripheries of the great cities number of people who run away from the wars, of the natural calamities, that are the search of job or better conditions and quality of life. Therefore, it urges to carry through an arduous and dynamic work of recovery, the deep roots of the current people to surpass the crisis and the ethical emptiness in consequncia of cruel imposition in a way to think and to act of the modern society occidental person. Therefore the land not only symbolizes the fertility and the life, but also the sacred place that belonged and where its ancestor had lived and died, to leave the land of its village or tribe means to breach with its cultural roots, to lose its identity and to breach with its community. In Brazil the blacks had tried, in colonial Brazil a reality that if puted in charge to keep them in a subalternidade situation, being placed in the base of a society supported for the enslaved work.
Thus we can notice a construction of cultures diversified in the south of Africa, that is, in the region of the Badiagara. To place perspective the African culture we must place the innumerable dialects en vogue, ways and behaviors of a not homogeneous people. Amadou in its bibliographical construction searched to construct to a history family and at the same time an individual history, however working in a perspective of complexity of the collective concepts of the African reality. When working such perspective we must in sending to the question of the misticismo, something to them complex in way to the construction of the African mentality. Amadou in its workmanship works with clarividncia, the mstica and religious question,> facing constant dualidades, therefore it received as inheritance the African religion from the mother and mulumana of the father.
In way to this analysis we cannot leave to point the matriarcal power, therefore the mother in way to the construction them processes cultural partners was considered of extreme importance in the decisions taken for the men. However to become possible the permanence of the culture and the African memory, griots counted history and the ancios were basic in the transference of the knowledge, of the wisdom and of the rites of its ancestral ones, Amadou clearly leaves in them in its narrative that griots would have to work with the truth ‘ ‘ absoluta’ ‘ , therefore they had as mission to transfer this to know to African youth, as objective not to lose history. The work of Amadou backwards tona the fusing between memory and orality with regard to the power of the word in Africa, therefore it sent something of permanence cultured and ritual them used by the ancestral ones. The word had the power to take the knowledge and at the same time a generation caused read the power to curse all. Therefore, we notice in way to the analysis that the orality is of extreme importance for concretion knowing of them of a previous people who would precede the future generations. Thus he is clearly that the work of the memory and the orality if establishes as something primordial in the culture it African people, becoming alive the representations imaginary it that it involves one all to proceed cultural partner in relation has an ample historiogrfico procedure, diversified and complex with regard to the language, the dialects, the rites, the culture and the religiosidade that if mixture in way a dialectic has that she remains alive in the memory of the ancios and the orality of griots.
Fabiane Rossi Date In this article considers a reading in the renascentista painting for the bias of two artists, Giovanni Bellini and Rafael Sanzio, evidencing its workmanships whose thematic and headings consist of ' ' Christ Benedicente' ' (The Blessing Christ). One expects, from this comparison enters the workmanships of Bellini and Rafael, to find characteristics with the period in common where they had been produced (Renaissance), but also the differences between them, thus searching to understand the poetical one of each artist, looking for to perceive the permanncias and the ruptures of both the artists stop with the thematic one portraied. Renaissance: an introduction In century XIV initiates a period of changes in the Europe: the form of politics-economic-social organization if modifies to the few for the mercantilism or daily pay-capitalism; it has the sprouting of the bourgeoisie as capital detainer; the acirramento of the mercantile contact with Asia and with it occurs together a great flow of people for the European continent. Allied to these changes, it is to transformation of the human ideals, in the form of the humanismo, occurring ' ' renascer' ' of the ideas on the life, the body, the social one. The term renaissance passed to be used to call this ' ' renascer' ' artistic and scientific occurred between centuries XIV and XVI, having as characteristic main the revalorizao of the thought and the art of the Classic Antiquity, the formation of a culture humanist, the rationality, the individualism and the scientific severity. The artists of this time if had guided for ideals of perfection, balance and favour, represented with the aid of the symmetry directions and ratio of the figures. He has the valuation of the man and the nature, in opposition to the holy ghost and to the supernatural one, concepts of the Average Age (Scholastic).
This to come back the look on itself exactly made to also resurge the studies in the fields of sciences human beings, as well as the aguamento of the spirit of comment of the man and the way where it lives (naturalismo). Others two marcantes characteristics had been the rationalism, that is, the certainty of that everything could be explained by the reason of the man and science; the individualism, reflecting the idea of that each one is responsible for the conduction of its life, in opposition to the effective estamentrio system in the Average Age. At this time it also has the alteration of ' ' for quem' ' if it makes art: previously the Church Catholic was configured as the main financier of the Art, but, from the Renaissance, who also assumes this role to finance artistic making is the patrons, sponsors of the Art, that if configured between the bourgeois ones, and in lesser it has broken the European governing and the clergy. This meant in an increasing valuation of the art, especially in the Italic Peninsula, cities as Venice, Florena and Genoa, that had had an expressive artistic and intellectual movement? what it made Italy to be known as the cradle of the Renaissance.